When your Instagram feed is filled with photos of fit girls doing barbell exercises with ease, and your friends every now and then talk about the next charity run, it's easy to succumb to newfangled fitness trends and throw yourself into a healthy lifestyle. However, with the existing abundance of opportunities, it is easy to forget that sometimes amateur performance during physical exertion can only harm. We turned to the traumatologist of the Central Clinical Hospital of the Russian Railways No. 6, Ph. D., Vakhtang Lomtatidze and master trainer Sergei Kovtun, who helped us understand the most fashionable sports of this season and explained what is dangerous in the approach “right off the bat », Why you shouldn't be ashamed to ask for help from instructors and how neglect of safety precautions can threaten.
Regardless of whether you are training in the gym with an instructor or on your own, you need to know a few basic rules. Sergei Kovtun, the coach of World Class Zhukovsky, helped us to compile a list of recommendations that will help to avoid injuries and sprains. They are few, but you need to know them as 2x2.
- At the beginning of your workout, take 5-10 minutes of cardio. This is necessary for a smooth start of the body into work: the pulse accelerates, the body temperature rises, the blood is enriched with oxygen, the muscles warm up and become more plastic, adrenaline is released and all unnecessary processes (for example, digestion) are inhibited;
- The second stage is articular warm-up and pre-stretch (preliminary stretching). During the warm-up, synovial fluid is released, a special substance that is responsible for the absence of joint friction, which avoids premature wear. Presrech, in turn, warms up the muscles and improves their contractile function;
- And, finally, proceeding directly to training, it is necessary to perform exercises in several approaches with minimal load. Thus, you gradually adapt to the stress, and the likelihood of injury decreases.
Before going out to the nearest park and gracefully winding kilometers, like Charlotte from "Sex and the City", it is worthwhile to understand where the danger lies.
The opinion of a trauma doctor: “If your knees and joints are your weak points, you can forget about running. Because of the shock load, they are the ones who suffer the most. Then there are the feet and the lumbosacral spine. It is worth noting that the type of damage will depend on the surface you are running on. The safest option is smooth surfaces such as a treadmill. And if you dream of running along the sandy seashore, remember that in such cases rotational movements occur in the knees, which can lead to injury to the menisci."
Trainer's opinion: “In order to minimize the possibility of injury, it is necessary to use compression sportswear, knee and ankle braces and warming ointments. And, of course, do not forget about the warm-up. Do not exercise if you have heart and spine problems. Also, with significant weight, knee joints can be affected. Running is contraindicated for pregnant and lactating women, as well as for girls during menstruation."
If you suddenly wanted to pull a barbell, jump rope and run a hundred meters in one lesson, then CrossFit is definitely for you. These workouts include cardio, weight lifting, athletics, powerlifting, and gymnastics. However, this diversity also increases the number of possible injuries.
Opinion of a traumatologist: “During strength exercises, you can damage the pectoral muscles, break the biceps and earn osteochondrosis of the lumbar spine (destruction of articular cartilage). Cyclical intense jumping rope can provoke ruptures of the Achilles tendons. When sprinting for short distances, there is a high likelihood of injury to the ligaments of the knees, especially when braking suddenly."
Coach's opinion: “For beginners, before moving on to such high-intensity activities, it is necessary to go through a period of adaptation to stress and prepare the heart and lungs. In addition, it is worth strengthening the stabilizing muscles. They fix the position of parts of the skeleton relative to each other, but do not participate in movement. These include the abdominal muscles, the extensors of the spine, the muscles of the pelvis, and the hamstrings. Subsequently, a warm-up, bandages and comfortable shoes that fix the foot and ankle will protect you from painful bruises and sprains. Classes are recommended only under the guidance of an experienced certified trainer."
Any woman in body ballet classes can become Anna Pavlova, albeit only for an hour. They include classical dance moves, a set of barbell stretching exercises, as well as yoga and Pilates elements.
The opinion of a traumatologist: “These classes are characterized by injuries that are found in ballet dancers. Of course, this is not the same load as professional dancers, however, there can be meniscus injuries, inflammation of the tendons of the foot and ankle joint."
Coach's opinion: “Comfortable clothes and footwear corresponding to this direction, and warm-up are the key to success. Pregnant women should postpone such loads. Those who are in position are not advised to perform jumps and batman."
If you are tired of fitball, pay attention to the barefoot - a hemisphere platform. Exercising on an unstable support develops agility and balance, strengthens the stabilizing muscles. You can arrange for yourself both strength and cardio training. But be careful.
The opinion of a traumatologist: “In case of an unsuccessful fall from bare feet, you can get a fracture of any part of the body. In addition, due to the constant maintenance of balance, inflammation of the tendons, ligaments and muscles can occur."
Coach's opinion: "In order to protect joints from damage, put on special bandages on your knees, wrists and ankles."
Hammock yoga is slowly but surely taking over fitness centers. This is a beautiful destination that does not require special training, available to beginners and overweight people. But with the wrong approach, dislocations and sprains are possible.
The opinion of a traumatologist: “Exercises should be performed as carefully as possible, without rushing, otherwise you can dislocate your shoulder or elbow. With excessive flexion or overextension, there is a risk of intra-articular damage. If you do the instructor's tasks incorrectly, you can even get a fracture."
Coach's opinion: “Choose comfortable elastic clothes for training. Gymnastic yoga socks with open toes and heel are great. If you have long hair, be sure to bring an elastic band with you - loose hair can get tangled in the fabric. In case of high arterial and intracranial pressure, as well as during pregnancy, inverted postures should be avoided.
TRX is a true discovery for the world of fitness. It is included in the training course for the special forces of the American army - "sea daggers". Hanging loop exercises using your own weight allow you not only to improve your form, but also to develop dexterity and flexibility.
The opinion of a trauma doctor: “When performing these exercises, menisci, elbows and ankles suffer. Remember, observing safety measures will help you not to harm your body."
Coach's opinion: “If you are injured, then kinesiological tapes will come to your aid - one-sided adhesive tapes made of cotton or acrylic. They will relieve pain and swelling."
And further. If you visit the fitness center, you can most likely take advantage of the free fitness testing service. Similar examinations can also be performed in specialized clinics. “Fitness screening allows you to assess the body's readiness for physical activity. The program includes a consultation with a cardiologist, a study of the cardiovascular system. Based on the results, the doctor makes a comprehensive conclusion on the state of the heart, blood vessels and other major systems, gives recommendations on permissible physical activity and correction of lifestyle and nutrition,”explains Yulia Voinova, cardiologist at the Atlas Medical Center.
With the help of computer diagnostics, the functional state of the body is determined - how it responds to physical activity. Based on the results obtained, you will find out which activities are suitable and which ones are better to exclude or limit at the moment. Also, do not neglect the help of an instructor who will select an individual program. Of course, the services of specialists with extensive experience are not cheap, but this will save you from injury and mistakes.
Photo: Getty Images
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