Usually we turn to a cosmetologist or dermatovenerologist when we encounter visible skin problems: mimic wrinkles, discoloration and elasticity of the skin, acne. But if you try to protect your skin from negative external and internal factors in advance, as well as learn everything about preventive measures, then any skin changes can be slowed down or completely prevented. And here it is important to have basic knowledge of dermatology and select the means and care procedures based on them. Together with Anastasia Sergeevna Bisharova, PhD in Medicine and a guest expert at BABÉ Laboratorios, we have selected the most needed beauty terms for those who want to understand cosmetics and skin care.
1. Oxygenation (oxygenation of the skin)
Through the skin, 1-2% of the total gas exchange in the body is carried out. Oxygen enters the blood vessels from the surface of the skin, while carbon dioxide leaves the dermis in the opposite direction. Therefore, it is important to consider the breathability of the cosmetics used: it should not interfere with the skin "breathe".
To improve the division of skin cells, the synthesis of collagen and elastin by fibroblasts, cosmetics that improve skin respiration are very useful. Such agents contain active oxygen or substances that accelerate its transport and other metabolic processes occurring in cells (ubiquinone or coenzyme Q10, vitamin B6).
2. Seboregulation (normalization of the sebaceous glands)
In the course of its life, the skin produces sebum, or sebum. But for various reasons, the mechanism of its natural regulation can be disrupted, as a result of which a number of problems arise - from acne and oily sheen to serious diseases (acne, rosacea, seborrhea).
To preserve the natural mechanism of sebum regulation, it is rational to use mild cleansers and toners. It is also imperative to provide the skin with sufficient moisture and avoid the use of glycerin and comedogenic oils in daily care.
3.pH (acid-base balance)
The change in pH depends on the formulas of care products, the degree of water hardness, nutrition (sweet sour, spicy and salty alkalize), alcohol consumption, drinking regime, taking medications, solar radiation.
Normal skin pH is 5.5 (3.5 to 5.9), oily skin has a more alkaline environment - 5.7-6, and dry skin is acidic - 3-5.2. Subjective changes in the acid-base balance to the acidic side can be determined if, for example, the skin has become more sensitive, irritated, excessive peeling, dryness, and tightness have appeared.
If a person has oily and problem skin with a pH of 5.7–6 (alkaline), then he needs to acidify it, therefore cosmetic preparations should have a pH of 4.0–4.5.
A person with thin and sensitive skin (pH below 4.5) needs products with a neutral pH of 5.5. To maintain the balance of normal skin, the use of cosmetics with a pH of 5.5 is also required.
4. Free radicals
Highly active unstable molecules that damage the structure of skin cells, provoke early aging and the appearance of age-related pigmentation. They can be synthesized as a result of improper diet, smoking, medication, stress, alcohol, and also penetrate inward from the environment (UV radiation, X-rays, tobacco smoke). The negative effect of free radicals is damage to fibroblasts: the skin lacks collagen and elastin, loses its firmness, smoothness and elasticity (see also: "10 effective means for saving collagen and elastin").
Free radical antagonists are antioxidants - vitamins A, C, E and some B vitamins, as well as beta-carotene (a precursor of vitamin A), selenium, zinc, alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10.
5. Hydration (moisture)
This is a chemical process of interaction of a substance with water, in which water molecules are not destroyed, but bind to particles of a substance. This reaction plays an important role in regulating the synthesis of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid. It is controlled by hormones and decreases with age.
Skin moisture is also influenced by: insufficient fluid intake (you need to drink 1.5-2 liters of water per day); lack of essential fatty acids in the diet; violation of the protective functions of the skin; excessive physical activity; ultraviolet radiation; improper skin care; the use of certain medicines.
This is a complex of biochemical processes of the body, leading to structural and visible changes in the skin, against the background of constant damage from sunlight. Prevention is important here, since it is much easier to prevent or reduce the process of photoaging than to eliminate its consequences - the appearance of early wrinkles, age spots, and increased dryness of the skin.
At the initial stages, the process of photoaging is reversible, so the earlier you start active prevention and correction of these changes, the more service you will render your skin (see also: “Skin Photoaging: Everything You Need to Know About It”).
To combat photoaging, peelings, photorejuvenation procedures, dermabrasion, and laser resurfacing are used. However, the most important preventive measure against photoaging is regular skin care, use of sunscreens, antioxidant creams, moisturizers and retinoid-based preparations.
About the expert:
Anastasia Sergeevna Bisharova
Photo: Getty Images
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