Svetlana Kovaleva, dermatocosmetologist and official Avon expert, recalls: “The synthesis of collagen and elastin decreases with age. In addition, the enzymes that destroy these protein fibers do not sleep: the skin loses its firmness and elasticity."
However, the situation does not frighten scientists. In 2001, they managed to discover a special group of proteins responsible for longevity. Sirtuins, later called longevity genes, play a key role in protecting and prolonging cell life. Later, sirtuin SIRT1 was found in human skin cells - keratinocytes and fibroblasts. As it turned out, sirtuins restore the skin matrix, prevent premature cell destruction and serve as a binding mechanism in the wilds of genetic information. Anticipating future prospects, pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline did not even skimp on $ 720 million to buy out Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, a global medical and cosmetic sirtuin research company. David Sinclair, head of research at Harvard Medical School, also found outthat there is a link between daily calories and longevity. If the calorie intake does not exceed the norm, there is a high concentration of sirtuins in the skin.
The active substances of some plants can stimulate the amount of sirtuins in the skin. For example, rice and myrtle extracts.
The sirtuins themselves are lazy. Their ingenious work requires constant activation. One of the most effective natural activators is resveratrol. By stimulating the activity of sirtuins, it increases the protective properties of the cell by 70%. Resveratrol, by the way, is found in red wine. But its natural amount, unfortunately, does not reach the required level of activation. So the frequent use of red wine in order to influence the sirtuins does not make sense. Seek help with modern cosmetics. Inspired by the scientific discovery surrounding the activation of sirtuins, Estee Lauder scientists were the first in the world to create the revolutionary Resveratrate ™ based on it. Synthetic resveratrol has biomimetic properties, which means that the skin perceives it as its natural component. Besides activating sirtuins,resveratrol also inhibits the production of enzymes that break down collagen.
Once upon a time, dimethylethanolamine was only used in dietary supplements to improve physical and mental performance. People who took them found an unusual "side effect": noticeable skin lifting, smoothing of wrinkles and obscene healthy complexion. It turned out that when it gets into the body, DMAE turns into acetylcholine, a substance that improves relationships between nerve cells. By increasing the rate of transmission of nerve impulses in the skin, DMAE inevitably leads to an increase in skin tone. Another invaluable contribution is the removal of the toxic aging pigment lipofuscin from the body. As a part of cosmetics, DMAE initiates a process during which the body gets rid of weakened or damaged cells, giving way to young and healthy ones. “Today, a synthetic analogue of DMAE, THPE, has appeared, the lifting effect of which is four times greater,than from his predecessor, - says Tatiana Rubasheva, Ph. D., dermatocosmetologist and RoC brand expert. “Its action is directed at keratinocytes (cells of the surface layer of the skin) and is highly selective and well tolerated.”
One HA molecule, like a unique sponge, holds up to 1000 water molecules. Starting from the age of 25, the amount of HA in the body decreases significantly. The reason for this is stress, unfavorable environmental conditions, electromagnetic radiation, genetically modified food, etc. The Clarins Research Center has deduced the ideal percentage of moisture at all skin levels: 80% in the dermis, 65-70% in the epidermis and 13% in stratum corneum. Over time, these proportions are violated. It is practically impossible to replenish HA reserves from the outside, since the weight of the acid molecules is very large, and the penetrating ability is negligible. Until recently, all HA-based cosmetic products only created a film on the skin that retained moisture from the air and sweat. However, progress does not stand still. So,the Clarins Soins Super Hydratants Multi-Climats line works on the principle of multi-level moisturizing. “It's all about the combination of two forms of HA - the well-known high molecular weight and the newer low molecular weight,” explains Lionel de Benetti, research director at Clarins. “The low weight allows it to penetrate into the deep layers of the skin, not only activating the natural synthesis of its own HA, but also enhancing the protective functions of the skin.”
The focus of Estee Lauder Time Zone cream is a triple hyaluronic complex. First, high molecular weight HA acts as a magnet on the surface. Secondly, the lighter HA fragments trigger the "false alarm" effect, provoking cells to synthesize their own acid. Thirdly, anti-hyaluronase technology comes into action - heavy artillery against an enzyme that mercilessly destroys HA in the body.
Experts from L'Oreal laboratories took a different path, which took a total of seven years. By combining the Pro-Xylan ™ molecule with hyaluronic acid, they created an anti-aging complex where the constituent components complement each other. “Pro-Xylan ™ was sourced from beech wood extract. It enhances the production of glucosaminoglycans in the dermis, which are responsible for maintaining an optimal ecosystem for the life and development of skin cells. In addition, Pro-Xylan molecules stimulate the synthesis of type IV and V collagen, strengthening the bond between the upper and middle layers of the epidermis. As a result, the skin receives better nutrients, oxygen and gets rid of toxins. Under the influence of the product, its own HA is fixed in the cells, prolonging its moisturizing effect,”says Pierre-Emmanuel Angeloglou, Director of International Skin Care Marketing.
Don't miss the detailed story about hyaluronic acid and its properties.
Alpha lipoic acid
An antioxidant that actively fights free radicals. Restores "spent" vitamins for reuse. ALA is soluble in water and fats, which allows it (unlike other antioxidants) to work inside and outside cells. Inflammation of the skin at the cellular level is one of the ways wrinkles appear. ALA prevents the appearance of cytokines - substances that trigger the inflammatory process. ALA also affects sugar metabolism. Excess sugar in the body damages cells: by settling on collagen fibers, it makes them less flexible and elastic, which manifests itself in the formation of wrinkles. In a study in the British Journal of Dermatology, 33 middle-aged women with irritated and inflamed skin used an ALA cosmetic cream on only one side of their face. Within a few weeks, each of them noted significant changes.
The destruction of cellular DNA is a process caused by the ubiquitous free radicals. Of all the misfortunes (smoking, unfavorable ecology, alcohol, stress), the most active source of radicals is ultraviolet light. Just imagine how many attacks unprotected skin undergoes on a beautiful sunny day! “The older a person gets, the more clearly the destruction of DNA becomes. In the process of aging, the cellular structures (proteins, histones), on which the DNA strands are wound, dissociate and go astray,”explains Eric Perrier, Research Director at LVMH. - This causes the chains to twist erratically - just like a badly wound watering hose. DNA becomes vulnerable. Having chosen one of the ways of influencing cell structures,scientists have learned to use cosmetics to improve the properties of DNA and restore its original functions. " Recovery requires fuel in the form of various enzymes. One of them will unwind or rewind the DNA helix, the other will replace the missing genetic block or connect the DNA fragments in the correct sequence. However, over time, even this “on / off” repair mechanism wears out, and then genetic aging begins in the body. It is better to do the restoration of your own DNA at the end of the day - with the help of special nighttime means. Why - explains Daniel B. Yarosh, vice president of development and research at Estee Lauder: “Night is the ideal time for maximum activity of cellular processes. During the day, the skin is distracted - it needs to resist external aggressive factors. But,while you sleep in a comfortable environment, the skin is more willing to absorb nutrients and initiates the processes of recovery and renewal. " We have already talked in more detail about what cosmetics and how to use before bed.
These are chains of amino acids that differ from their closest relatives - proteins - in their lower molecular weight. They are lighter, more stable and able to reach the living cell layer. Peptides are so important in human life that a separate medical journal Peptides was even dedicated to them.
All peptides are conventionally divided into three groups: blockers (relax facial muscles), carriers (deliver useful substances to cells) and signaling (accelerate the skin regeneration process).
The most famous peptide blocker is argireline, which works like Botox, but without injections. A more modern representative of blockers is waglerin 1, an absolutely harmless analogue of the poison of the temple keffiyeh (this is such a snake) from the Transvital laboratory. Dipeptide-2 improves lymph circulation, therefore it is used in products that reduce bags and bruises under the eyes. Pentapeptide Matrixil accelerates the synthesis of skin proteins (collagen and elastin). Copper tripeptides accelerate the recovery process - they are often used after aggressive cosmetic procedures (laser resurfacing, peeling). Decornyl tetrapeptide ensures the formation of high-quality skin collagen. It turns out that it is not enough to stimulate collagen synthesis, you still need to make sure that it turns out without defects. For this, tetrapeptides are responsible, which do not allow deposits of useless collagen.
Everyone knows that skin cells are constantly dying off and new ones are formed instead. The cell always originates in deeper layers. The young cell gradually moves to the surface, traveling over the skin for about a month, but this movement can slow down with age. Olay scientists have developed a complex of signaling aminopeptides. “It is easily absorbed by the skin, restores collagen synthesis and accelerates cell movement and the rate of skin regeneration by up to 200%,” says Virginia Coleman Drosos, Vice President of Global Olay Skincare.
Photo: Getty Images
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